Haplogroup R

Haplogroup R1a

This lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas, perhaps in a population of the Kurgan culture. The Kurgans were known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 BCE). They are believed to have been the first speakers of an Indo-European language. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, in India, and in the Slavic populations of eastern Europe.

Brian Sykes used the name Sigurd to represent the founder of Haplogroup R1a (Saxons, Vikings, and Celts, 2006). Sigurd is a legendary Scandinavian hero. Stephen Oppenheimer used the name Rostov (The Origins of the British, 2006).

Somerled, who defeated the vikings and established a kingdom in the Hebrides, was a member of this haplogroup.

Haplogroup R1b

This lineage is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is found in about 90% of Basques, 80% of Irish and Welsh, 70% of Scots, 60% of English, 50% of French, 50% of Germans, but only 25% of Norwegians and 1% of Syrians. It is believed to represent the main pre-Ice Age population of western Europe, which expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last Ice Age 10-12,000 years ago.

Brian Sykes used the name Oisin to represent the founder of Haplogroup R1b (Saxons, Vikings, and Celts, 2006). Oisin is a legendary Irish hero. Stephen Oppenheimer used the name Ruisco (The Origins of the British, 2006).

Studies on Scottish and Irish families have shown that Colla Uais and Niall of the Nine Hostages, the putative ancestors of many clans and septs, were probably members of this haplogroup.

The French Haurys belong to Haplogroup R1b1b2* (R-M269), the most common subgroup in western Europe. Further testing would refine this result.

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